One of important item need to be done before constructing the building structural is the structural foundation. The type of building foundation are raft foundation, footing foundation, piling foundation. Normally before construct a building, we need to check soil condition for that building. It can be done by carried out soil investigation(SI). The analysis of SI report can be used for determine type of foundation.
As a consulting engineer, it will be often that engineer need to prepare RC drawings for client. Client need it for quantities purpose. Normally, SI will carry out at the later stage i.e. after the earthworks completion.
As a result, how do consulting engineer to carry out preliminary selection of foundation?
Preliminary selection of foundation can be based on the earthworks drawings. A simple way is referring to the cut and fill area in earthworks drawings. Where cut area will select as pad foundation and fill area will select as pile foundation. When fill area is less than 1.2m, it still can be used as footing foundation because footing need a certain depth for construct.
Another method of determination is by on site excavation, engineer need to go to site to witness the ground condition. Engineer can observe how the excavator excavate earths. Will the excavator can easy remove the soil. Will soil is loose at vertical sides of excavation hole. If the answer is YES, then ground is soft. It can be recommended to use pile foundation else pad foundation can be recommended.
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Chee Shai Choon